Monday, May 30, 2016
Decorating 3,000 Graves of Civil War casualties at Cypress Hills Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York from Harper's Weekley
Charles S. Reinhart Illustration, Harper's Weekly June 4, 1870 Floral Tribute to the Nation's Dead
Cypress Hills Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York 1869 Decoration Day
Harper's Weekly 1873. Decoration Day
Harper's Weekley Decorating the Graves of Civil War Soldiers
"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
"Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
"But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
"It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." President Abraham Lincoln, 19 November 1863
Three years after the American Civil War ended, on May 5, 1868, the head of an organization of veterans established Decoration Day, now called Memorial Day, as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Civil War dead with flowers. It is believed that date was chosen because flowers would be in bloom all over the country. The holiday is celebrated every year on the final Monday of May.
The Civil War remains the United States' deadliest conflict. More than 620,000 people died during the war. Many of the Civil War casualties occurred as a result of disease & infection, rather than as a direct result of injuries.
Local springtime tributes to the American Civil War dead were held before the national observance in 1868. One of the first occurred in Columbus, Mississippi, April 25, 1866, when a group of women visited a cemetery to decorate the graves of Confederate soldiers who had fallen in battle at Shiloh. Nearby were the graves of Union soldiers, neglected because they were the enemy. Disturbed at the sight of the bare graves, the women placed some of their flowers on those graves, as well.
Sunday, May 22, 2016
See History Matters Created by the American Social History Project / Center for Media & Learning (Graduate Center, CUNY) & the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History & New Media (George Mason University).
“Many Hundreds are Starving for Want of Employment”: John Harrower Leaves London for Virginia, 1774
Migration across the Atlantic often involved a series of stages, drawing people to London before they embarked on their journey. John Harrower, a 40-year-old shopkeeper & tradesman, lived in the far north of the British Isles. Like many of the 40,000 residents of the Scottish Highlands who left after 1760, he faced poverty & little opportunity. Harrower initially planned to travel to the Netherlands but ended up in London. The great metropolis, the largest in the western world, swelled as thousands looked unsuccessfully for employment. After several weeks, Harrower signed an indenture to travel to Virginia as a schoolmaster. He sailed with 71 other male indentees, some from London, but many others from across England & Ireland. With his relatively privileged training, Harrower was fortunate & found a new life on a tidewater plantation. These excerpts from his journal tell of his time in London, journey across the Atlantic, & arrival in Virginia.
From John Harrower:
Munday 18th [January 1774] This day I got to London & was like a blind man without a guide, not knowing where to go being freindless & having no more money but fifteen shillings & eight pence farthing a small sum to enter London with; But I trust in the mercys of God who is a rich provider & am hopefull before it is done some way will cast up for me. I took up my lodging at the old Ship Tavern in Little Hermitage Street, Mr. George Newton being the landlord, but in Prison for debt at present.
Wednesday 19 Jay. 1774 This day I shifted my cloaths & put on a clean Ruffled Shirt, clean Britches & waistcoat & my Brown Coat. I not having any other cloaths on ever since I left Lerwick but my blew Jacket & Bigg Coat above it & a plain shirt. At 11 am I called to see Capt. Peery, but was told he would not be at home untill 5 pm. Having eat nothing for 24 houres, I dinned in my Lodging this day which cost me l/2 Str. After dinner I took a walk with the mate of a ship a Scotsman who carried me through Virginia Street, London Street, part of White Chappel Street, down to London Hospitall, through Ragg fair, the Minnories Round Tour hill, & the Tour, through Saint Catharins, & Bur street & so home.
At 5 pm called again at Capt. Perrys & the first face I saw was Willie Holcraw of Coningsburgh who I found staid here as a servant, & while I was speacking to him, Capt. Perry came home & he immediately knew me, & desired me to walk in which I did, & after sitting some time & drinking some tea, I called Capt. Perry aside & made my Intentions known to him, at same time begged his advice & assistance; He told me he hardly thought there would be any Business got for me in London. But told me to call on him at the Jamacia Coffee House to morrow at Change time. I then went home, & soon went to Bedd.
Thursday 20th Jay. 1774 This morning breackfast at home & paid 6d. for it. At noon called at the Jamacia Coffee House & soon after seed Capt. Perry & waited here & [at the?] Change untill 3 pm. but no appearance of any Business for me. The time I was in the Coffee house I drank 3ds. worth of punch, & I was obliged to make it serve me for Dinner. At night I hade l/2d. worth of bread & 1d. of Cheese & a poynt of Porter for supper it being all I cou’d afford.
Freiday 21st This morning I seed an advertisement for Bookeepers & Clerks to go to a Gentleman [at?] Philadelphia. I went as it directed to No. 1 in Catharine Court Princes street, but when I came there I was told they were served. I then waited again on Capt. Perry untill after 3 pm, But to no purpose. I this day offered to go steward of a ship bound to Maryland but could not get the birth. This day I was 3 or 4 miles through London & seed St. Pauls Church, the Bank of England where I seed the Gold lying in heaps, I also seed Summerst house, Gild hall, Drury Lane, Covingarden, Adelphus Buildings & severall other pleaces. I then returnd & near my Lodgings I dinned at an eating house & hade 4d. worth of roast Beiff 1d. worth of bread & a poynt of small beer, in all 5 1/2 d.
Saturday 22d. Jay. 1774 This morning I seed an advertiesment in the Publick Ledger for a Messenger to a publick Lodge, Sallery 15/Str. per week & another advertisement for an under Clerk to a Mercht. to both which I wrote answers & went to the places apointed, & found at each place more than a dozen of Letters before me, so that I hade litle expectation that way they being all weel acquanted & I a stranger. I then went to Change to see if any thing would cas[t] up but to no purpose, so I returned hom at 4 pm & spent the evening in a verry sollitary manner supping on bread & Cheese as usuall.
Sunday 23d. This morning I drank some purle for breackfast & then I took a walk in the forenoon through severall streets, & at 1 pm I returned to the eating house I hade formerly been at & dinned which cost me 6 1/2 today having hade 1d. worth of pudding more than I formerly hade. In the afternoon I went to a Methodists Meeting, the Text was in the V Chap: Mathew & the 20th Verse. After sermon I came home & being solitarry in my room I made the following Verses which I insert on the other side of this leaf.
Now at London in a garret room I am,
here frendless & forsaken;
But from the Lord my help will come,
Who trusts in him are not mistaken.
When freinds on earth do faint & faile,
And upon you their backs do turn;
O Truely seek the Lord, & he will
Them comfort that do murn.
I’ll unto God my prayer make,
to him my case make known;
And hopes he will for Jesus sake,
Provide for me & soon.
Munday 24th. This morning I wrote six tickets to give to shipmasters at Change seeking a stewards birth on board some ship, but could not get a birth. I also wrote a petition in generall to any Mercht. or Tradesman setting forth my present situation, & the way in which I hade been brought up & where I hade served & in what station, at same time offering to serve any for the bare suport of life fore some time. But all to no effect, for all pleaces here at present are intierly carried by freinds & Intrest, & many Hundreds are sterving for want of employment, & many good people are begging….
Wednesday 26th. This day I being reduced to the last shilling I hade was oblidged to engage to go to Virginia for four years as a schoolmaster for Bedd, Board, washing & five pound during the whole time. I have also wrote my wife this day a particular Accot. of every thing that has happned to me since I left her untill this date; At 3 pm this day I went on board the Snow Planter Capt. Bowers Comr. for Virginia now lying at Ratliff Cross, & imediatly as I came on board I reed, my Hammock & Bedding. At 4 pm came Alexr. Steuart on board the same Ship. He was Simbisters Servt. & hade only left Zetland about three weeks before me. We were a good deall surprised to meet with on[e] another in this place.
Thursday 27th Jay. 1774 This day ranie weather. The ships crew imployed in rigging the ship under the Direction of the mate & I was imployed in getting my Hammock slung. At 2 pm came on board Alexr. Burnet nephew to Mr. Frances Farquharson writter in Edinburgh & one Samuel Mitchell a Cooper from Yorkshire & both entred into the birth & Mace with Stewart & me.
Freiday 28th. This day the ships crew imployed as Yesterday.
Saturday 29th. This day came on board Alexr. Kennedy a young man from Edinburgh who hade been a Master Cooper there & a Glasgow Man by trade a Barber both which we took into our Mace, which compleated it being five Scotsmen & one Yorkshire man, & was always called the Scots Mace, & the Capt. told me he was from the Toun of Aberbothick in Scotland, but that he [had] note been there since he was fifteen years of age but hade been always in the Virginia trade which I was verry glade to hear. . .
Sunday 6th. At 7 am got under way with a fair wind & clear wr. [weather] & at 11 am came to an anchor off Gravesend & immediatly the Mercht. came on board & a Doctor & clerk with him & while the Clerk was fulling up the Indentures the doctor search’d every servt. to see that they were sound when two was turned ashore haveing the clap, & Seventy five were Intend to Capt. Bowres for four Years.
Munday 7th. Feby. 1774 This forenoon imployed in getting in provisions & water; at 4 pm put a servant ashore extreamly bade in a fiver, & then got under saile for Virginia with seventy Servants on board all indented to serve four years there at their differint Occoupations myself being one of the Number & Indented for a Clerk & Bookeeper, But when I aravied there I cou’d get no such birth as will appear in its place. At pm we came to an anchor at the Nore it blowing & snowing verry hard.
Tuesday 8th. At 5 am made saile from the Nore with the wind at W.N.W. Clear weather & blowing hard. At 2 pm got off a Pillot from Deall to take our River Pillot ashore for which Boat Capt. Bowers paid one & a half Guineas, & after buying some Gin here we stood streight to sea Under Close R. T. sails & our fore saile, a verry high sea running all this day.
Wednesday 9th. Wind at V.N.V. Steering V.B.S. in Company with the Price Freggate of Eighteen Guns bound to Jamacia. At noon caste out the Rd [reefs?] out of the Topsailes. . . .
Tuesday [May] 10th. [after the ship has arrived in Virginia] At 2 am wegh’d & stood up with the tide, came to an Anchor at 6 am & lay untill Do. 8 when we weigh’d with a fair wind & got to our Moorings at 6 pm at the Toun of Fredericksburgh.
Wednesday 11th. At 10 am Both Coopers & the Barber from our Mace went ashore upon tryall. At night one Daniel Turner a servt. returned on board from Liberty so drunk that he abused the Capt. Cheif Mate & Boatswan to a verry high degree, which made to be horse whipt. put in Irons & thumb screwed. An houre after he was unthumbscrewed, taken out of the Irons, but then he was hand cuffed, & gagged all night.
Thursday 12th May 1774, All hands quite on board this day. Turner ungagged But continoued in handcuffs.
Freiday 13th. This forenoon put ashore here what bale goods we hade remaining on board. In the afternoon Mr. Burnet, Stewart & myself went ashore on liberty to take a walk & see the Toun, who’s principall street is about half an English Mile long, the houses generally at a little distance one from another, some of them being built of wood & some of them of brick, & all covered with wood made in the form of slates about four Inches broad, which when painted blew you wou’d not know it from a house sclated with Isedell sclate. In this Toun the Church, the Counsell house, the Tolbooth the Gallows & the Pillary are all within 130 yds. of each other. The Market house is a large brick building a litle way from the Church. Here we drank some Bottles of beer of their own brewing & some bottles of Cyder for which we paid 3 1/2 per bottle of each. Returned on board in the evening. Turner still in handcuffs.
Saturday 14th. Nothing remarcable. Turner still in handcuffs.
Sunday 15th. All last night a great deall of thunder & Lightning. This day Mr. Anderson came to toun & came on bord, & spacke to severall of the servts. Turner still handcuff’d.
Munday 16th May 1774 This day severalls came on board to purchase servts. Indentures & among them there was two Soul drivers. They are men who make it their bussines to go on board all ships who have in either Servants or Convicts & buy sometimes the whole & sometimes a parcell of them as they can agree, & then they drive them through the Country like a parcell of Sheep untill they can sell them to advantage, but all went away without buying any.
Tuesday 17th. This day Mr. Anderson the Mercht. sent for me into the [cabin? ] & verry genteely told me that on my recomendations he would do his outmost to get me settled as a Clerk or bookeeper if not as a schoolmaster which last he told me he thought wou’d turn out more to my advantage upon being settled in a good famely.
The ships crew & servants imployed in getting ashore all the cask out of the hould, no sales this day.
Wednesday 18th. This day the ships crew & servants imployed in getting out the ballast & unrigging the ship. One Cooper, one Blacksmith & one Shoemaker were settled with Masters this day.
Thursday 19th. One Farmer’s time sold & one Cabinet Maker on tryall.
Freiday 20th. This day we got the first four Hhds. of Tobacco on board; Turner still continous handcuffed.
Saturday 21st May 1774 This day one Mr. Cowly a Man twixt fifty & sixty years of age, a servt., also three sons of his their ages from Eight to fourteen were all settled with one McDonald a Scotsman.
Sunday 22d. All hands quiet on board.
Munday 23d. This morning a great number of Gentlemen & Ladies driving into Town it being an anuall Fair day & tomorrow the day of the Horse races. At 11 am Mr. Anderson begged [me] to settle as a schoolmaster with a freind of his one Colonel Daingerfield & told me he was to be in Town tomorrow, or perhaps to night, & how soon he came he shou’d aquant me. At same time all the rest of the servants were ordred ashore to a tent at Fredericksbg. & severall of their Indentures were then sold. About 4 pm I was brought to Colonel Daingerfield, when we imediatly agreed & my Indenture for four years was then delivered him & he was to send for me the next day. At same time ordred to get all my dirty Cloaths of every kind, washed at his expence in Toun; at night he sent me five shillings on board by Capt. Bowers to keep my pocket.
Tuesday 24th. May 1774 This morning I left the Ship at 6 am having been sixteen weeks & six days on board her. I hade for Breackfast after I came ashore one Chappin sweet milk for which I paid 3 1/2 Cury. At 11 am went to see a horse race about a mille from Toun, where there was a number of Genteel Company as well as others. Here I met with the Colonel again & after some talk with him he gave me cash to pay for washing all my Cloaths & Something over. The reace was gain’d by a Bay Mare, a white boy ridder. There was a gray Mare started with the Bay a black boy ridder but was far distant the last heat.
Wednesday 25th. I Lodged in a Tavern last night & paid 7 1/2 for my Bedd & 7 1/2 for my breackfast. This morning a verry heavy rain untill 11 am. Then I recd. my Linens &ca. all clean washed & packing every thing up I went on board the ship & Bought this Book for which I paid 18d. Str. I also bought a small Divinity book called the Christian Monitor & a spelling book, both at 7 1/2 & an Arithmetick at 1/6d. all for my own Accot.
Thursday 26th. This day at noon the Colonel sent a Black with a cuple of Horses for me & soon after I set out on Horseback & aravied at his seat of Belvidera about 3 pm & after I hade dined the Colonel took me to a neat little house at the upper end of an Avenue of planting at 500 yds. from the Main house, where I was to keep the school, & Lodge myself in it.
This pleace is verry pleasantly situated on the Banks of the River Rappahannock about seven Miles below the Toun of Fredericksburgh, & the school’s right above the Warff so that I can stand in the door & pitch a stone on board of any ship or Boat going up or coming doun the river.
Freiday 27th. This morning about 8 am the Colonel delivered his three sons to my Charge to teach them to read write & figure. His oldest son Edwin 10 years of age, intred into two syllables in the spelling book, Bathourest his second son 6 years of age in the Alphabete & William his third son 4 years of age does not know the letters. He has likeways a Daughter whose name is Hanna Basset __ Years of age. Soon after we were all sent for to breackfast to which we hade tea Bread, Butter & cold meat & there was at table the Colonel, his Lady, his Childreen, the housekeeper & myself. At 11 am the Colonel & his Lady went some where to pay a visite, he upon horseback & she in her Charriot. At 2 pm I dined with the Housekeeper the Childreen & a Stranger Lady. At 6 pm I left school, & then I eat plenty of fine straw berries, but they neither drink Tea in the afternoon nor eat any supper here for the most part. My school Houres is from 6 to 8 in the Morning, in the forenoon from 9 to 12 & from 3 to 6 in the afternoon.
Source: John Harrower, The Journal of John Harrower, An Indentured Servant in the Colony of Virginia, 1773–1776 (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1963), 14–19, 38–42.
See History Matters Created by the American Social History Project / Center for Media & Learning (Graduate Center, CUNY) & the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History & New Media (George Mason University).
Saturday, May 14, 2016
May Boating Party on a River Barge on the Bruges canal. This depiction, representing the month of May, shows men & women collecting newly green branches to carry home in both the boat & on horseback. Those in the boat welcome Spring with music as well. May, from Book of Hours (Latin), The Golf Book is famous for its lively depictions of sports & pastimes. It takes its name from one of its illustrations which shows an early game of golf. The Golf Book is a book of hours, a collection of devotional texts for private prayer. Books of hours were very popular between the 13th & 16th centuries. Each one was unique because it was written & illustrated according to the needs & desires of the person who commissioned it. This Golf Book was produced by Flemish artist Simon Bening, the leading master of illumination in the 16C. Bening had a workshop in Bruges, & it is likely that the Golf Book was produced there in the early 1540s. His daughter Levina was also a miniature painter who went on to work as an artist in England. Netherlandish (Bruges), c. 1540. BL Golf Book1 f22 MS Add 24098, fol. 22v.
1500 - Book of Hours by Jean Poyer, known as The Hours of Henry VIII - May - Picking Branches
1515 Da Costa Hours, in Latin Illuminated by Simon Bening (1484–1561) Belgium, Bruges, May Boating Party. Collecting green branches & playing music.
1660 Published by Matthew Collings; After Crispijn de Passe the Elder; After Maarten de Vos. May; boat with two couples collecting green branches, drinking, and making music.
Book of Hours: A Boating Party (ca 1500), Flemish. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, Ms 1058-1975 f5v. Calendar Page for May. A couple stand on a bridge watching a punt carrying a party of musicians and a pair of lovers beneath. In the boat, a man plays the lute, a woman sings from a sheet of music, and a man plays an alto-sized recorder with a flared bell. The branches of new leaves decorating the boat celebrate the regeneration of spring.
Monday, May 9, 2016
May 1600s - American colonist William Bradford (1590-1657) writes of his disgust with May Day celebrations
William Bradford (1590-1657) Of Plymouth Plantation (Written 1630–50)
The Pestilent Morton and his Merry Mount
This woodcut of six boys dancing around a maypole, published in Massachusetts in 1788, is the oldest American published illustration of a country dance.
William Bradford (c.1590 – 1657) was an English Separatist leader who grew up in Yorkshire, and later moved to Leiden, Holland, and helped found the Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact while aboard the Mayflower in 1620. He served as Plymouth Colony Governor five times covering about thirty years between 1621 and 1657. His journal, Of Plymouth Plantation, covered the period from 1620 to 1657 in Plymouth Colony.
"They also set up a May-pole, drinking and dancing about it many days together, inviting the Indian women, for their consorts, dancing and frisking together, (like so many fairies, or furies rather.) and worse practices. As if they had anew revived and celebrated the feast of the Roman goddess Flora, or the beastly practices of the mad Bacchanalians. Morton likewise (to show his poetry) composed sundry rhymes and verses, some tending to lasciviousness, and others to the detraction and scandal of some persons, which he affixed to this idle or idol May-pole. They changed also the name of their place, and instead of calling it Mount Wollaston, they call it Merry Mount, as if this jollity would have lasted ever. But this continued not long, for after Morton was sent for England, (as follows to be declared,) shortly after came over that worthy gentleman, Mr. John Endicott, who brought over a patent under the broad seal, for the government of the Massachusetts, who visiting those parts caused that May-pole to be cut down, and rebuked them for their profaneness, and admonished them to look there should be better walking; so they now, or others, changed the name of their place again, and called it Mount Dagon."
John Adams writes notes on Thomas Morton, the "Indians," & the Maypole on Ocober 19. 1802.
Hutchinson’s Hist. of M. Bay. Page 7.
In 1625 one Capt. Wollaston with about 30 Persons began a Plantation near Westons. They gave it the name of Mount Wollaston. It was known by that name some years after, but at length the name was lost in that of Braintree, of which Town it is a part. The particular Hill, which caused the name of Mount is in the farm of John Quincy Esq late one of the council for the Province. No mention is made of a Patent to Wollaston. One (Thomas) Morton of Furnivals Inn was of this Company. He was not left in command, but contrived to make himself chief, changed the name of Mount Wollaston to Merry mount, Sett all the Servants free, erected a May pole, and lived a Life of dissipation untill all the Stock intended for trade was consumed. He was charged with furnishing the Indians with Guns and Ammunition, and teaching them the use of them. At length he made himself so obnoxious to the Planters in all parts, that at their general desire the People of New Plimouth Seized him by an armed force and confined him untill they had an opportunity of Sending him to England.
Prince’s New England Chronology page 152.
This year, 1625 comes over Capt. Wollaston with three or four more of Some Eminence, and a great many Servants, Provisions &c to begin a Plantation. Deputy Governor Dudley says there came 30 with Capt. Wollaston; in his Letter to the Countess of Lincoln of March 28 1631 printed in 8.vo at Boston 1696. They pitch on a place in the Massachusetts Bay Since named Braintree, on the northerly mountainous part thereof which they call Mount Wollaston, among whom is one Thomas Morton, who had been a kind of petty Fogger at Furnival’s Inn.
Prince’s Chronology page 162. Capt. Wollaston having continued at Mount Wollaston Some time, and finding Things not answer his Expectation, he carries a great part of the Servants to Virginia writes back to Mr. Rasdall one of his Chief Partners to carry another part, and appoints Mr Fitcher his Lieutenant, till he or Rasdall returns. But Rasdall being gone, Morton excites the rest to turn away B. Fitcher to seek his bread among his Neighbours, till he can get a pass to England. After this they fall to great licentiousness and [Profaneness].
Prince’s Chronology page 175. That worthy Gentleman Mr Endicot coming over for the Government of the Massachusetts, visits the People at Merry Mount, causes the Maypole to be cutt down, rebukes them for their Profaneness, admonishes them to look there be better Walking and the Name is changed to Mount Dagon. But Morton and Company, to maintain their Riot, hearing what Gain the French and Fisherman made by Selling Guns with Powder and Shot to the Natives; he beings the Same trade in those parts; teaches how to use them, employs the Indians in hunting and fowling for him wherein they become more active than any English, by their Swiftness of foot, nimbleness of Body, quick sightedness, continual Exercise and knowing the haunts of all Sorts of Game. And finding the Execution Guns will do, and the benefit thereby, become mad after them And give any price for them. Morton Sells them all he can Spare and sends to England for many more. The Neighbouring English who live Scattered in diverse places, and have no Strength in any meeting the Indians in the Woods, thus armed, are in great terror, and those in remoter places See the mischief will quickly Spread if not forthwith prevented. Besides they See they Should not keep their Servants: for Morton receives any, how vile soever; and they, with the discontented will flock to him, if this nest continues; and the other English will be in more fear of this debauched and wicked Crow, than of the Savages themselves. The chief of the Straggling Plantations therefore Piscatoway, Naumkeak, Winisimet, Wessaguscusset, Natasco and other places, meet, and agree to Solicit those of Plimouth, who are of greater Strength than all, to join and Stop this growing Mischief, by Suppressing Morton and Company before they grow to a further head. Those of Plimouth receiving their Messengers and Letters, are willing to afford our help. However, first sent a Messenger with Letters to advise him in a friendly Way to forbear those Courses. But he Scorns their advice, asks who has to do with him; declares he will trade pieces with the Indians, in despight of all &c. We send a Second time to be better Advised; for the Country cannot bear the Injury; it is against their common Safety and the Kings Proclamation. He says the Kings Proclamation is no Law, has no Penalty but his displeasure, that the King is dead and his displeasure with him; and threatens, if any come to molest him, let them look to themselves; he’ll prepare for them. Upon this they See no Way but force: and therefore obtain of the Plimouth Governor, to send Captain Standish with some aid to take him. The Captain coming, Morton arms his consorts, heats them with liquor, bars his doors, Setts his Powder and Bulletts on the table ready, the Captains Summons him to yeild, but has only Scoffs &c. At length Morton fearing We Should do some violence to the house, he and Some of his Crew came out to Shoot the Captain: At which the Captain Steps up to him, puts by his piece, takes him, enters the house, disperses the worst of the Company, leaves the more modest there, brings Morton to Plymouth: where he is kept, till a Ship going to the Isle of Shoals to England, he is sent in her to the New England Council, with a Messenger and Letters to inform against him &c: yet they do nothing to him not so much as rebuke him and he returns next year.
May Pole by Hans Sebald Beham, woodcut, 1534, 1500-1550 No. 76 Meldemann
In his 1583 Anatomy of Abuses, Philip Stubbs (c.1555-1610) wrote of his concerns about such May Day celebrations, "All the young men and maids, old men and wives, run gadding over night to the woods, grove, hills, and mountains, where they spend all the night in pleasant pastimes; and in the morning they return, bringing with them...their May pole, which they bring home with great veneration, as thus: they have twenty or forty yoke of oxen, every ox having a sweet nose-gay of flowers placed on the tip of his horns, and these oxen draw home this May pole (this stinking idol, rather) which is covered allover with flowers and herbs, bound round with strings, from the top to the bottom, and sometimes painted with variable colours, with three hundred men, women, and children following with great devotion. And thus being reared up...they fall to dance about it, like as the heathen people did at the dedication of the Idols....I have heard it credibly reported...that of forty, three-score, or a hundred maids going to the wood over night, there have scarcely the third part of them returned home again undefiled. These be the fruits with which these cursed pastimes bring forth."